After a year away from friends and co-workers, people sometimes struggle to resume their public routines
These long-term psychological effects were not unforeseen. In May 2020 researchers at the University of British Columbia published a study in the journal Anxiety that predicted that an estimated 10 percent of people in the midst of the pandemic will develop COVID stress syndrome after coping with severe psychological problems, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or mood or anxiety disorders.
Alan Teo, an associate professor of psychiatry at Oregon Health and Science University, attributes cave syndrome to three factors: habit, risk perception and social connections. “We had to learn the habit of wearing masks, physical distancing or social distancing, not inviting people over,” he says. “It is very hard to break a habit once you form it. There is this disconnect between the actual amount of risk and what people perceive as their risk.” He adds that there is a focus on “the risk of infection and death rather than the risk of dying from being lonely and disconnected.”
People are reluctant to resume their pre-COVID lives for different reasons. Some still have an extreme fear of the disease while others do not want to forfeit what they found to be the positive benefits they derived from the forced isolation and solitude.
University of California, Los Angeles, undergraduate student Genesis Gutierrez discovered he has actually preferred his pandemic lifestyle, especially the money he has saved by attending college virtually. “Postpandemic life means I would have to move to L.A. again and pay for a ridiculously expensive apartment to go to classes that I’ve been able to go to in my home,” he says. “I’ve been able to work from home, do stuff outside of academics and learn more about myself.”
Advances in technology, Teo says, have put people at more risk of developing hikikomori, an extreme version of social withdrawal lasting six months or longer that superficially resembles effects of agoraphobia, the fear of open or crowded places. “The $10,000 question is whether the prevalence of this type of extreme condition may be increasing as a result of COVID,” Teo says, “particularly in young people or adolescents, where the risk is greater because that stage is often when this extreme social withdrawal has been identified.”
So what can be done if someone is afraid to go out? Do people suffering from cave syndrome need professional treatment or just a bit more adjustment time? Northwestern’s Gollan says it all depends on the level of severity. If a person has symptoms of exhaustion, depression or anxiety, she advises measures that provide a sense of purpose in life: meditation, faith work, prayer, playing or listening to music.
Treatment for more extreme levels of anxiety require effective psychotherapy with a mental health professional who can offer cognitive therapy or other treatments that gradually expose a person to a stressful situation to resolve their fears. Medication may also be used at times.
Teo says there is a type of distorted thinking that maybe things will be better later. “Based on what we understand about immunity and the variants coming onboard, quite the opposite is true,” he adds.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S)
Melba Newsome is an independent journalist who has publish hundreds of articles in publications including Prevention, Time, Bloomberg B